The Suffering of God According to Martin Luther's 'Theologia Crucis'
Does God suffer within himself? Does God suffer only in the humanity of Jesus Christ? or does only the god-man Jesus Christ suffer? This book seeks to demonstrate that the suffering of God has an "ontological status" in Luther’s Theologia Crucis. The discussion concentrates on three constituents of Luther’s theology – Christology, soteriology, and Trinity – to see how each of them establishes the assertion that God suffers. It also places Luther within the modern discussions of Essential Apathy: Luther accepts the Old Church’s Theopaschitism, but rejects Patripassianism, a heresy of the Old Church. This study breaks new ground by taking Luther a step further, arguing that only a Trinitarian theology of the cross is genuine Christian theology, and that the suffering of Christ touches the immanent Trinity as well as the economic Trinity. Ngien engages in useful discussions with other scholars including Paul Althaus, Walter von Loewenich, Ian Siggins, Marc Lienhard, Eberhard Jüngel, Jürgen Moltmann, and Alister McGrath.