Unless otherwise instructed, your title page should include the following centred elements 6 double-spaced lines from the top of the page: a focused and succinct title (bolded), your name, your school’s name, your course code and title, your professor’s name, and the due date. View a sample title page!
An “Author Note” and “Running Head” are not required in student papers, but some Tyndale professors want them included.
If required, an Author Note replaces many of the details on your title page. Still include the title and your name early on the title page, then give the heading “Author Note” (bolded, centred) towards the bottom of the page, followed by these two double spaced lines:
- This paper was prepared for Dr. [Professor Name]’s [COUR #### Course Title Name] and was submitted on [Due Date].
- Correspondence regarding this paper can be directed to [Your Name] at [yourmytyndale @ email.com].
If required, a Running Head should be included in the header of all pages (including your title page). The Running Head is an abbreviated version of your title, to a maximum of 50 characters, in all caps (e.g., DOCUMENTING QUALITATIVE RESEARCH). Align your Running Head with the left side of the page.
Sections and Headings
APA papers usually include the following sections: Abstract, Introduction and/or Literature Review, Methods, Results, Discussion, References, and Appendices. However, undergraduate papers seldom include Abstracts, Methods, Results, or Appendices.
APA uses a hierarchy of headings. The main sections of your paper use Level 1 headings (e.g., Abstract, Methods, etc.), while subsections use Level 2 (e.g., Measures). Instead of the heading “Introduction," give the title of your paper on the first page of main text as a Level 1 heading. Your headings should be formatted as follows:
Level 1: Centred, Bold, Title-Style Capitalization
Level 2: Flush Left, Bold, Title-Style Capitalization
Level 3: Flush Left, Bold, Italics, Title-Style Capitalization
Level 4 Indented, Bold, Title-Style Capitalization. Start paragraph immediately after heading.
Level 5: Indented, Bold, Italics, Title-Style Capitalization. Start paragraph immediately after heading.
Other Formatting Features
All pages of an APA paper should include page numbers. Page numbers should be included in your paper’s “Header” aligned with the right. The title page is counted as page 1.
APA papers at Tyndale should be written in 12pt font, Times New Roman, and double-spaced.
Citation Rules and Common Sources in APA
Formatting In-Text Citations
APA uses an "Author-Date"citation style. This means that whenever you include a quote or paraphrase in your assignments, you must include, in brackets, the author’s last name, the source’s year of publication, and (when applicable) the page number where you got your information from (also called a parenthetical citation). Please note that paraphrases do NOT require page numbers unless it includes specific information that you think your reader might want to investigate.
- Quotation example: The way students take notes has changed significantly in recent years: "It is quite common to find students who bring notebook computers to class to take their notes; and to a lesser extent, we now find universities that require their students to have notebook computers" (Turner & Pérez-Quiñones, 2009, p. 257).
- Paraphrase example: In today's classrooms, many students choose to take notes on laptops, and some classes even require students to take notes electronically instead of on paper (Turner & Pérez-Quiñones, 2009).
APA loves signal phrases, also known as “narrative citations” (e.g., ”Author writes…” or “As author claims,”). In that case, include the year of publication next to the author’s name but include the page number after your quotation/paraphrase.
- Quotation example: As Turner and Pérez-Quiñones (2009) explain, "It is quite common to find students who bring notebook computers to class to take their notes; and to a lesser extent, we now find universities that require their students to have notebook computers" (p. 257).
- Paraphrase example: Turner and Pérez-Quiñones (2009) note that in today's classrooms, many students choose to take notes on laptops, and some classes even require students to take notes electronically instead of on paper.
For a quotation of 40 words or more, use block formatting. Introduce the quotation with a signal phrase and colon. Forgo quotation marks (except to note quotations within the quotation) and indent the quoted material a half-inch from the left margin. Block quotes are still double spaced, and the page number/parenthetical ciation goes after the quotation's final punctuation. Consider this example with a narrative citation:
...(Let's pretend this block quotation comes in the middle of a paragraph. Before starting the quotation, provide a contextualizing sentence like the next one.) Later in the article, Turner and Pérez-Quiñones (2009) describe some of the pitfalls of electronic notetaking:
The results showing that most students in our survey do not modify their notes (or even review them) frequently imply that the benefit of easy modification, which comes with a digital medium, may not be that important. Similarly, since there was only a lukewarm response to the sharing of notes between students, that may also not be of much use. (pg. 266)
More study will need to be done to determine if these cons outweigh the pros of taking notes on a computer.... (And then you would keep going with more sentences that elaborate on your quotation and continue your paragraph. Note that you do not indent the beginning of this part because it is not a new paragraph....)
List your sources on a new page at the end of your paper, titled in bold “References,” and alphabetize it according to authors’ last names. Replace authors’ first names with initials to avoid disclosing genders. Double-space the page, start entries at the left margins, and use a hanging indent of half an inch for entries that spill onto two or more lines.
In most cases, only capitalize the first word of titles, the first word of a subtitle (following a colon), and any proper nouns (e.g., names).
When citing online sources, provide a DOI number whenever possible. If there is no DOI number available, provide a Permalink or Stable URL.
Turner, S. A. & Pérez-Quiñones, M. A. (2009). Requirements for electronic note taking systems: A field study of note taking in university classrooms. Education and Information Technologies 14(3), 255-283. https://10.1007/s10639-009-9086-z.