Citing in APA

Citing in APA - Academic Integrity

APA is a citation style published by the American Psychological Association. It is primarily used at Tyndale in the disciplines of psychology, sociology, and counselling.

APA Formatting

Title Page

Unless otherwise instructed, your title page should include the following centred elements 6 double-spaced lines from the top of the page: a focused and succinct title (bolded), your name, your school’s name, your course code and title, your professor’s name, and the due date. View a sample title page!

An “Author Note” and “Running Head” are not required in student papers, but some Tyndale professors want them included.

If required, an Author Note replaces many of the details on your title page. Still include the title and your name early on the title page, then give the heading “Author Note” (bolded, centred) towards the bottom of the page, followed by these two double spaced lines: 

  • This paper was prepared for Dr. [Professor Name]’s [COUR #### Course Title Name] and was submitted on [Due Date].
  • Correspondence regarding this paper can be directed to [Your Name] at [yourmytyndale @ email.com].

If required, a Running Head should be included in the header of all pages (including your title page). The Running Head is an abbreviated version of your title, to a maximum of 50 characters, in all caps (e.g., DOCUMENTING QUALITATIVE RESEARCH). Align your Running Head with the left side of the page.

Sections and Headings

APA papers usually include the following sections: Abstract, Introduction and/or Literature Review, Methods, Results, Discussion, References, and Appendices. However, undergraduate papers seldom include Abstracts, Methods, Results, or Appendices.

APA uses a hierarchy of headings. The main sections of your paper use Level 1 headings (e.g., Abstract, Methods, etc.), while subsections use Level 2 (e.g., Measures). Instead of the heading “Introduction," give the title of your paper on the first page of main text as a Level 1 heading. Your headings should be formatted as follows:

Level 1: Centred, Bold, Title-Style Capitalization

Level 2: Flush Left, Bold, Title-Style Capitalization

Level 3: Flush Left, Bold, Italics, Title-Style Capitalization

Level 4 Indented, Bold, Title-Style Capitalization. Start paragraph immediately after heading. 

Level 5: Indented, Bold, Italics, Title-Style Capitalization. Start paragraph immediately after haeding. 

Other Formatting Features

All pages of an APA paper should include page numbers. Page numbers should be included in your paper’s “Header” aligned with the right. The title page is counted as page 1.

APA papers at Tyndale should be written in 12pt font, Times New Roman, and double-spaced.

Formatting In-Text Citations

APA uses an "Author-Date"citation style. This means that whenever you include a quote or paraphrase in your assignments, you must include, in brackets, the author’s last name, the source’s year of publication, and (when applicable) the page number where you got your information from (also called a parenthetical citation). Please note that paraphrases do NOT require page numbers unless it includes specific information that you think your reader might want to investigate.

  • Quotation example: The way students take notes has changed significantly in recent years: "It is quite common to find students who bring notebook computers to class to take their notes; and to a lesser extent, we now find universities that require their students to have notebook computers" (Turner & Pérez-Quiñones, 2009, p. 257).
  • Paraphrase example: In today's classrooms, many students choose to take notes on laptops, and some classes even require students to take notes electronically instead of on paper (Turner & Pérez-Quiñones, 2009).

APA loves signal phrases, also known as “narrative citations” (e.g., ”Author writes…” or “As author claims,”). In that case, include the year of publication next to the author’s name but include the page number after your quotation/paraphrase.

  • Quotation example: As Turner and Pérez-Quiñones (2009) explain, "It is quite common to find students who bring notebook computers to class to take their notes; and to a lesser extent, we now find universities that require their students to have notebook computers" (p. 257).
  • Paraphrase example: Turner and Pérez-Quiñones (2009) note that in today's classrooms, many students choose to take notes on laptops, and some classes even require students to take notes electronically instead of on paper.

Block Quotation

For a quotation of 40 words or more, use block formatting. Introduce the quotation with a signal phrase and colon. Forgo quotation marks (except to note quotations within the quotation) and indent the quoted material a half-inch from the left margin. Block quotes are still double spaced, and the page number/parenthetical ciation goes after the quotation's final punctuation. Consider this example with a narrative citation:

...(Let's pretend this block quotation comes in the middle of a paragraph. Before starting the quotation, provide a contextualizing sentence like the next one.) Later in the article, Turner and Pérez-Quiñones (2009) describe some of the pitfalls of electronic notetaking:

The results showing that most students in our survey do not modify their notes (or even review them) frequently imply that the benefit of easy modification, which comes with a digital medium, may not be that important. Similarly, since there was only a lukewarm response to the sharing of notes between students, that may also not be of much use. (pg. 266)

More study will need to be done to determine if these cons outweigh the pros of taking notes on a computer.... (And then you would keep going with more sentences that elaborate on your quotation and continue your paragraph. Note that you do not indent the beginning of this part because it is not a new paragraph....)

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References

List your sources on a new page at the end of your paper, titled “References,” and alphabetize it according to authors’ last names. Replace authors’ first names with initials to avoid disclosing genders. Double-space the page, start entries at the left margins, and use a hanging indent of half an inch for entries that spill onto two or more lines.

In most cases, only capitalize the first word of titles, the first word of a subtitle (following a colon), and any proper nouns (e.g., names).

When citing online sources, provide a DOI number whenever possible. If there is no DOI number available, provide a Permalink or Stable URL.

References

Turner, S. A. & Pérez-Quiñones, M. A. (2009). Requirements for electronic note taking systems: A field study of note taking in university classrooms. Education and Information Technologies 14(3), 255-283. https://10.1007/s10639-009-9086-z.

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Authors, Editors, and Translators

Two Authors

Include both authors’ names in the in-text citation and the Reference entry.

  • Narrative Citation: Carson and Llewellyn-Jones (2000) argue, “…” (p. 53).
  • Parenthetical Citation: "...end of quotation" (Carson & Llewellyn-Jones, 2000, p. 53).

Sample Reference Entry: Lastname, A. & Othername, B. (Year). Title of the book. Publication company. 

Carson, B. & Llewellyn-Jones, M. (2000). Frames and fictions on television: The politics of identity within drama. Intellect Books.


Three or More Authors

For in-text citations, give only the first author’s name followed by the acronym “et al.”

  • Narrative Citation: Wiskunde et al. (2019) argues, “…” (p. 1941)
  • Parenthetical Citation: "...end of quotation" (Wiskunde et al., 2019, p. 1941).

For the Reference entry, include all authors up to 20. If there are 21 or more authors, include the first 19 authors, then an ellipsis (…), and then the last author.

Sample Reference Entry: Lastname, A., Othername, B., & Anothername, C. (Year). Title of the article. Title of the journal, volume#(issue#), pg. range. DOI number or URL. 

Wiskunde, B., Arslan, M., Fischer, P., Nowak, L., Van den Berg, O., Coetzee, L., Juárez, U., Riyaziyyat, E., Wang, C., Zhang, I., Li, P., Yang, R., Kumar, B., Xu, A., Martinez, R., McIntosh, V., Ibáñez, L. M., Mäkinen, G., Virtanen, E.,..Kovács, A. (2019). Indie pop rocks mathematics: Twenty One Pilots, Nicolas Bourbaki, and the empty set. Journal of Improbable Mathematics, 27(1), 1935–1968. https://doi.org/10.0000/3mp7y-537.


Organization as Author

If the author of a source is an organization, list the organization's name as the author's name. Do not swap the order of words like with human authors. 

  • Narrative Citation: As stated by the National Research Council (2000), "..." (p. 103).
  • Parenthetical Citation: "...end of quotation" (National Research Council, 2000, p. 103).

Sample Reference Entry: Organization Name. (Year). Title of the book. Publishing Company.

National Research Council (U.S.). (2000). Review of NASA’s biomedical research program. National Academies Press. 


Editors

When an author and editor are listed on the front cover, only use the author's name (not the editor's name) for the in-text citation.

  • Narrative Citation: As Meadows (2008) writes, "..." (p. 253).
  • Parenthetical Citation: "...end of quotation" (Meadows, 2008, p. 253).

For the Reference entry, however, both the author's and editor's names must be included. Include the editor’s name(s) in brackets after the title with the abbreviations “Ed.” or “Eds.” 

Sample Reference Entry: Lastname, A. (Year). Title of the book (Editor’s name, Ed./Eds.). Publishing Company.

Meadows, D. H. (2008). Thinking in systems: A primer (D. Wright, Ed.). Chelsea Green Publishing.


Translators

Only use the author's name (not the translator's name) for the in-text citation.

  • Narrative Citation: Kleine (2017) argues, “…” (p. 86).
  • Parenthetical Citation: "...end of quotation" (Kleine, 2017, p. 86).

For the Reference entry, include the translator's name and the abbreviation "Trans." in brackets after the title of the book.

Sample Reference Entry :Lastname, A. (Year). Title of the book (Translator’s name, Trans.). Publishing Company.

Kleine, H. (2017). The drama of space: Spatial sequences and compositions in architecture (J. Reisenberger, Trans.). Birkhäuser.

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Books, eBooks, and Chapters in an Anthology

Print Book

  • Narrative Citation: Mann (2004) explains, “…” (p. 104).
  • Parenethical Citation: "...end of quotation" (Mann, 2004, p. 104).

Sample Reference Entry: Lastname, A. (Year). Title of the book. Publishing Company.

Mann, J. (2004). Life saving drugs: The elusive magic bullet. RSC Paperbacks.


eBook

eBooks are cited exactly like print books, except that the Reference entry also needs to include the Permalink/Stable URL/eBook reader type (e.g., Kindle) of your source. 

  • Narrative Citation: Buck and Wightwick (2013) write, “…” (p. 21).
  • Parenethical Citation: "...end of quotation" (Buck and Wightwick, 2013, p. 21).

Sample Reference Entry: Lastname, A. (Year). Title of the book. Publishing Company. DOI#/URL.

Buck, J. & Wightwick, C. (2013). Teaching and learning languages: A practical guide to learning by doing. Routledge. https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/tyndale-ebooks/reader.action?docID....


Chapter/Essay in an Anthology

This category is used when you are citing one or more chapters or essays from a book where each chapter or essay has a different author. For in-text citations, only include the author’s name for the chapter/article/essay you are citing.

  • Narrative Citation: Coles (2000) argues, “…” (p. 32).
  • Parenthetical Citation: "...end of quotation" (Coles, 2000, p. 32).

For the Reference entry, the author of the chapter/essay is cited at the beginning of the entry, and then the editor of the entire collection is included after the chapter title (with "Ed./Eds." after the editor's name(s)). 


Sample Reference Entry: Lastname, A. (Year). Title of the chapter/essay. In Editor’s Name(s) (Ed./Eds.), Title of the anthology the chapter/essay is in (page range). Publishing Company.

Coles, G. (2000). Docusoap: Actuality and the Serial Format. In B. Carson and M. Llewellyn-Jones (Eds.), Frames and fictions on television: The politics of identity within drama (pp. 27-39). Intellect Books.

If you reference two or more chapters/essays from the same collection, you must include a separate Reference entry for both chapters/essays.

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Class Materials

Lectures

APA does not typically require reference entries for class lectures since your reader will not easily be able to access that lecture for themselves. Instead, you should state that it is part of a “personal communication” as part of your in-text citation. No page numbers are required (since there are none), but list the full date of the lecture in its place.

  • Narrative Citation: W. Kwan (personal communication, March 12, 2021) suggested his personal experiences were more than enough evidence to support his findings.
  • Parenthetical Citation: "...end of quotation" (W. Kwan, personal communication, March 12, 2021).

Lecture Notes or PowerPoints

For in text citations, in lieu of page numbers, provide some sort of indicator (lecture note page number, slide number, etc.) to let your reader know where you got the information from.

  • Narrative citation: As Wong (2020) states, “…” (slide 5).
  • Parenthetical citation: "...end of quotation" (Wong, 2020, slide 5).

Sample Reference Entry: Lastname, A. (Year). Title of the notes or PowerPoint [Lecture notes / PowerPoint slides]. School or organization giving the lecture. URL if applicable.

Wong, E. K. C. (2020). Delirium in dementia: A learning module for clinicians. [PowerPoint slides]. Senior Friendly Care. https://www.nth.nhs.uk/content/uploads/2019/06/Dementia-presentation-Feb....

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Periodicals (Journals, Newspapers, etc.)

Peer-Reviewed Journal

The example reference below assumes you are looking at an electronic journal article. Whenever possible, include a DOI (digital object identifier) number in place of a Permalink or Stable URL. If you are looking a print version of a journal article, everything is the same except no DOI number or URL is included.

  • Narrative citation: As Turner and Pérez-Quiñones (2009) argue, “…” (p. 261).
  • Parenthetical citation: "...end of quotation" (Turner & Pérez-Quiñones, 2009, p. 261).

Sample Reference Entry: Lastname, A. (Year). Title of the article. Title of the Journal, volume#(issue#), pg. range. DOI or URL if applicable.

Turner, S. A. & Pérez-Quiñones, M. A. (2009). Requirements for electronic note taking systems: A field study of note taking in university classrooms. Education and Information Technologies 14(3), 255-283. https://10.1007/s10639-009-9086-z.


Magazine Article

For in-text citations, include a page number for any quotations from a print magazine. The example below (without page numbers) assumes an online article. 

  • Narrative citation: As Mulvaney (2022) argues, “….”
  • Parenthetical citation: "...end of quotation" (Mulvaney, 2022).

For the Reference entry, only include the volume number, issue number, page range, and DOI number/URL as applicable.

Sample Reference Entry: Lastname, A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Magazine, volume#(issue#), pg. range. DOI or URL.

Mulvaney, K. (2022, June 24). What is a carbon footprint—and how to measure yours. National Geographic. https://www.nationalgeographic.com/environment/article/what-is-a-carbon-....


Newspaper Article

This section applies to newspapers that may be accessed online (e.g., The Washington Post, The New York Times, etc.). For news websites (e.g., BBC News, Huffpost), see our Websites section.

The only difference between print and online newspapers is you include the section and page for print resources (D4) and the URL for online sources.

  • Narrative citation: Marguiles (2020) writes, “….”
  • Parenthetical citation: "...end of quotation" (Marguiles, 2020).

Sample Reference Entry: Lastname, A. (Year, Month Day). Title of the article. Newspaper Title. Section or URL.

Margulies, M. (2020, September 21). Kids need superheroes now more than ever. The New York Timeshttps://www.nytimes.com/2020/09/21/parenting/kids-superheroes.html.

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Reference Works (Dictionaries, Encyclopaedias, etc.)

If you are citing a reference work that is regularly updated (e.g., popular dictionaries or encyclpaedias), use “n.d.” in place of a publishing year and provide a “Retrieval date” as part of your Reference entry.

However, if you are citing a reference work that is published as a unique edition without frequent updates (e.g., A discipline-specific dictionary that has no regular schedule for publishing updates), then you should use the proper publishing date and not include a “Retrieval date.”

For in-text citations, instead of giving a page number, provide the term you looked up in quotation marks. 

Non-Authored Entries

  • Narrative Citation: Merriam-Webster (n.d.) defines “incident” as “….”
  • Parenthetical Citation: "...end of quotation" (Merriam-Webster, n.d., "incident").

Sample Reference Entry: Shortened Title of Dictionary/Encylopaedia. (Year). In Title of dictionary/encyclopaedia. Term being defined. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from URL.

Miriam-Webster. (n.d.) Incident. In Merriam-Webster.com dictionary. Retrieved June 26, 2022, from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/incident.


Authored Entries

  • Narrative Citation: Graham (2019) defines "behaviorism" as "...."
  • Parenthetical Citation: "...end of quotation" (Graham, 2019, "behaviorism").

Sample Reference Entry: Lastname, A. (2019). Term being defined. In Editor’s Name (Ed.), Title of the dictionary. Publishing Company. URL if applicable.

Graham, G. (2019). Behaviorism. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), The Standford encyclopedia of philosophy (Summer 2019 ed.). Stanford University. https://plato.standford.edu/archives/sum2019/entries/behaviorism/.

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Sacred/Classical Work

The Bible and Other Sacred Works

For in-text citations, include the book, chapter, and verse of your Scripture reference, the title of the translation, and any applicable publication dates.

  • Narrative Citation: John 3:16 (New International Version, 1973/2011) states, “….”
  • Parenthetical Citation: "...end of quotation" (John 3:16, New International Version, 1973/2011).

Sample Reference Entry: Title of the Sacred Work (Translation name if the Bible). (Year version you are using was published). Publication Company OR Website Title. URL if applicable. (Original work published [original year of publication]).

New International Version. (2011). Zondervan. (Original work published 1973).

English Standard Version. (2022). Bible Gateway.  https://www.biblegateway.com/. (Original work published 2001).


Classical Works

If the classical work has a universal numbering system used in multiple translations and editions (e.g., section numbers, lines, etc.), then use those instead of page numbers. Otherwise, just use page numbers.

  • Narrative Citation: As Plato (ca. 380 B.C.E./2014) writes, “…” (p. 12).
  • Parenthetical Citation: "...end of quotation" (Plato, ca. 380 B.C.E./2014, p. 12).

Sample Reference Entry: Lastname, A. (Year version you are using was published). Title of work (Translator Name, Trans.). Series name if applicable.  Publication Company OR Website Title. URL if applicable. (Original work published [ca.] Year B.C.E/C.E.).

Plato. (2014). The republic (Raymond Larson, Trans.). Crofts Classics. Wiley. https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/tyndale-ebooks/detail.action?docID...(Original work published ca. 380 B.C.E.).

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Theses, Dissertations, and Monographs

Theses, dissertations, and monographs are all cited the same way. The biggest difference between them and regular books is the inclusion of the type of source and university in square brackets after the title. If the manuscript is unpublished, state that (eg., [Unpublished monograph...]).

  • Narrative Citation: As Stanberry (2020) writes, “…” (p. 87).
  • Parenthetical Citation: "...end of quotation" (Stanberry, 2020, p. 87).

Sample Reference Entry: Lastname, A. (Year). Title of the thesis, dissertation, or monograph. [Thesis/dissertation/monograph, University Name]. Name of database if applicable. DOI number/URL if applicable.

Stanberry, K. O. (2020). An integrative model of spiritual formation: Incorporating practices from Christian spirituality and psychotherapy. [Research portfolio, Tyndale University]. Tyndale Digital Collections. https://digitalcollections.tyndale.ca/handle/20.500.12730/162.

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Websites

The following guide lists how to cite websites in APA style. Please note, however, that websites are not considered scholarly sources. Therefore, they should only be used in particular contexts (e.g., providing an example of a website to recommend to a client) rather than as a foundational part of your research.

A “webpage” is the specific page you got your information from (like a chapter in a book). A “website” is the larger domain where all the pages on that site are housed (like the book the chapter is in). Since there are no page numbers on websites, you may need to include a different identifier. For example, use paragraph numbers or section headings if provided. If there are no other identifiers, however, simply drop that portion of the in-text citation. 

If there is no date listed on the website, replace that portion of the in-text citation and Reference entry with “n.d.”

Website with Author (e.g., blog post, news website)

  • Narrative Citation: As Carr (2016) explains, “…” (“Emmy Noether (1882-1935)”).
  • Parenthetical Citation: "...end of quotation" (Carr, 2016, “Emmy Noether (1882-1935)”).

Sample Reference Entry: Lastname, A. (Year). Title of the webpage. Title of the website. URL.

Carr, A. (2016). 3 Revolutionary Women of Mathematics. Scientific American. https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/guest-blog/3-revolutionary-women-of....


Website with Organization as Author

  • Narrative Citation: The Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (2009) describes it this way: “…” (“People who have medical conditions including”).
  • Parenthetical Citation: "...end of quotation" (Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, 2009, “People who have medical conditions including”).

Sample Reference Entry: Organization Title (Year). Title of the webpage. URL.

Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (2009, November 10). People at High Risk of Developing Flu-Related Complications. https://www.cdc.gov/h1n1flu/highrisk.htm. 


Website without Author

When doing in-text citations for unauthored websites, your narrative citation must refer to the website itself. This may require a “creative” signal phrase.

  • Narrative Citation: One example is the Exercise (2003) page, which lists “….” (“Fitness Equipment”).
  • Parenthetical Citation: "...end of quotation" (Exercise, 2003, “Fitness Equipment”).

Sample Reference Entry: Title of Webpage. (Year). URL.

Exercise. (2003). https://exercise.net/bmr.

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Citing Something Someone Else Cited

Sometimes, you will find a quotation or a paraphrase in another text that perfectly fits what you want to say. Whenever possible, try to find the original source so that you can double check the accuracy and context of what the original author said. But if you can’t locate the original source, how do you cite that source properly?

In APA, you need to list both the source you have AND the original source in your in-text citation. Include the original source’s citation information, followed by a semicolon and “as cited in,” and then give the citation information for the source you have. If quoting, include the page numbers for both sources if you have them.

  • Narrative Citation: According to Riley (2001, p. 21; as cited in Johnson, 2014), “…” (p. 86).
  • Parenthetical Citation: "...end of quotation" (Riley, 2001, p. 21; as cited in Johnson, 2014, p. 86).

For your Reference entry, you do NOT need to include the original source. Only include the source you have in your References.

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