The Chicago Manual of Style (CMS), 17th edition, is published by the University of Chicago Press and provides the current guidelines of citing according to Chicago style. This is the most widely used citation style at Tyndale in disciplines like Biblical Studies and Theology, Philosophy, History, Leadership, Spiritual Formations, and more.
Chicago offers two ways to cite information: “Notes-Bibliography” and “Author-Date.” The following guide lists information for the Notes-Bibliography style, the version of Chicago you should assume your professors want unless they state otherwise. For information on the “Author-Date” version, please consult our resource for Turabian (Author-Date).
The CMS does not have official guidelines for student-paper title pages, but we recommend the following template: Bold and centre the title of your paper around 1/3 of the way down the page. Leave several spaces between the title and your name. Then, towards the bottom of the page, double spaced, list the professor’s name, the course code and name, and the date of submission. Do NOT number your title page. View a sample title page!
Include a page number in the top right corner of all pages, excluding the title page. Count your first page of information as page 1.
Chicago does not require the use of headings. They are useful in longer papers (6+ pages), but are discouraged in short ones. There is no standard formatting for headings in Chicago other than you must be consistent. Headings of equal “importance” should be formatted the same across your paper.
A Chicago paper should be written in 12 pt. font, Times New Roman, and double-spaced. Do NOT include extra spacing between paragraphs; instead, indent the first line of each paragraph by one half-inch.
Did you know that as a Tyndale student, you have electronic access to the full Chicago Manual of Style? Log into the Chicago website using your myTyndale credentials.
Citation Rules and Common Sources in Chicago
Chicago (Notes-Bibliography) cites sources using superscript numbers in the body of your paper which correspond to footnotes (at the bottom of the page) or endnotes (on a separate page at the end of the paper). NOTE: You should use footnotes unless your professor indicates otherwise.
Each time you use a source, whether as a direct quotation (enclosed in quotation marks), a paraphrase, or a summary, you must include a footnote in your paper. To add a footnote to your paper, use the “Insert Footnote” function under the “References” tab in Microsoft Word.
The first time you cite a source, you must include the source’s full citation information:
In this example, we have a paraphrase of Dr. Shepherd's book dealing with the difference between adapting to and adopting culture.1 The superscript number for this paraphrase comes after the punctuation, and it corresponds to the footnote below.
1 Victor Shepherd, "The 'Charge' We Have to 'Keep': Enhancing Gospel Integrity in Christian Higher Education," in Christian Higher Education in Canada: Challenges and Opportunities, eds. Stanley E. Porter and Bruce G. Fawcett, (Eugene: Pickwick Publications, 2020), 296-297.
Subsequent citations of the same source should use a shortened citation. NOTE: Previous editions of Chicago recommended using the abbreviation Ibid. to do this, but this is now discouraged.
When the previous footnote is from the same source, include only the author’s last name and page number:
2 Shepherd, 9.
When the previous footnote is not from the same source, include the author’s last name, a shortened version of the title (no more than 4 words but still clearly representative of the source), and the page number:
4 Shepherd, "The 'Charge' We Have," 12.
For a quotation of 5 or more lines / 100+ words of prose OR of 4 or more lines of poetry, you need to use block formatting. Introduce the quotation with a signal phrase and colon. Forgo quotation marks (except to note quotations within the quotation) and indent the quoted material 1 half-inch from the left margin. Still include a superscript number that corresponds to a footnote at the bottom of the page. Block quotations are singled spaced in Chicago, but still leave a blank line before and after it. For example:
...(Let's pretend this block quotation comes in the middle of a paragraph. Before starting the quotation, provide a contextualizing sentence like the next one.) Later in the article, Turner and Pérez-Quiñones describe some of the pitfalls of electronic notetaking:
The results showing that most students in our survey do not modify their notes (or even review them) frequently imply that the benefit of easy modification, which comes with a digital medium, may not be that important. Similarly, since there was only a lukewarm response to the sharing of notes between students, that may also not be of much use.5
More study will need to be done to determine if these cons outweigh the pros of taking notes on a computer.... (And then you would keep going with more sentences that elaborate on your quotation and continue your paragraph. Note that you do not indent the beginning of this part because it is not a new paragraph.)
5 Scott A. Turner and Manuel A. Pérez-Quiñones, "Requirements for Electronic Note Taking Systems: A Field Study of Note Taking in University Classrooms. Education and Information Technologies 14, no. 3 (2009): 266, https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=ip,sso&db=l....
In addition to footnotes, Chicago also requires a Bibliography. This is an alphabetized list of every source quoted and paraphrased in your paper.
Begin your Bibliography on a new page with the centred title “Bibliography.” Leave two blank lines between this title and the first entry.
Start each Bibliography entry in Chicago at the left margin, leaving a blank line between each one. For each entry of 2 or more lines, keep them single spaced and use a hanging indent of one half inch.
When including titles in your Bibliography entries, use “Title-Style Capitalization.” This means that you should capitalize the first letter of all titles, the first letter of all subtitles, and any other major words in those titles (e.g., “Mission” and “Physical” but not “for” or “a”).
When citing online sources, provide a DOI number whenever possible. If there is no DOI number available, provide a Permalink or Stable URL.
Shepherd, Victor. "The 'Charge' We Have to 'Keep': Enhancing Gospel Integrity in Christian Higher Education." In Christian Higher Education in Canada: Challenges and Opportunities, edited by Stanley E. Porter and Bruce G. Fawcett, 283-303. Eugene: Pickwick Publications, 2020.
Each of the sections below provide examples of footnotes and Bibliography entries for common types of sources used at Tyndale. Whenever possible, we provide footnote examples for full and both kinds of shortened citations. For more information on these and other types of sources, please visit the Chicago Manual of Style, 17th edition.