Citing in Chicago

Citing in Chicago - Academic Integrity

The Chicago Manual of Style (CMS), 17th edition, is published by the University of Chicago Press and provides the current guidelines of citing according to Chicago style. This is the most widely used citation style at Tyndale in disciplines like Biblical Studies and Theology, Philosophy, History, Leadership, Spiritual Formations, and more.

Chicago offers two ways to cite information: “Notes-Bibliography” and “Author-Date.” The following guide lists information for the Notes-Bibliography style, the version of Chicago you should assume your professors want unless they state otherwise. For information on the “Author-Date” version, please consult our resource for Turabian (Author-Date).

Formatting

Title Page

The CMS does not have official guidelines for student-paper title pages, but we recommend the following template: Bold and centre the title of your paper around 1/3 of the way down the page. Leave several spaces between the title and your name. Then, towards the bottom of the page, double spaced, list the professor’s name, the course code and name, and the date of submission. Do NOT number your title page. View a sample title page!

Page Numbers

Include a page number in the top right corner of all pages, excluding the title page. Count your first page of information as page 1.

Headings

Chicago does not require the use of headings. They are useful in longer papers (6+ pages), but are discouraged in short ones. There is no standard formatting for headings in Chicago other than you must be consistent. Headings of equal “importance” should be formatted the same across your paper.

Font

A Chicago paper should be written in 12 pt. font, Times New Roman, and double-spaced. Do NOT include extra spacing between paragraphs; instead, indent the first line of each paragraph by one half-inch.

Did you know that as a Tyndale student, you have electronic access to the full Chicago Manual of Style? Log into the Chicago website using your myTyndale credentials.

Formatting Footnotes

Chicago (Notes-Bibliography) cites sources using superscript numbers in the body of your paper which correspond to footnotes (at the bottom of the page) or endnotes (on a separate page at the end of the paper). NOTE: You should use footnotes unless your professor indicates otherwise.

Each time you use a source, whether as a direct quotation (enclosed in quotation marks), a paraphrase, or a summary, you must include a footnote in your paper. To add a footnote to your paper, use the “Insert Footnote” function under the “References” tab in Microsoft Word.

The first time you cite a source, you must include the source’s full citation information:

In this example, we have a paraphrase of Dr. Shepherd's book dealing with the difference between adapting to and adopting culture.1 The superscript number for this paraphrase comes after the punctuation, and it corresponds to the footnote below. 


1 Victor Shepherd, "The 'Charge' We Have to 'Keep': Enhancing Gospel Integrity in Christian Higher Education," in Christian Higher Education in Canada: Challenges and Opportunities, eds. Stanley E. Porter and Bruce G. Fawcett, (Eugene: Pickwick Publications, 2020), 296-297.

Subsequent citations of the same source should use a shortened citation. NOTE: Previous editions of Chicago recommended using the abbreviation Ibid. to do this, but this is now discouraged.

When the previous footnote is from the same source, include only the author’s last name and page number:

2 Shepherd, 9.

When the previous footnote is not from the same source, include the author’s last name, a shortened version of the title (no more than 4 words but still clearly representative of the source), and the page number:

4 Shepherd, "The 'Charge' We Have," 12.

Block Quotations

For a quotation of 5 or more lines / 100+ words of prose OR of 4 or more lines of poetry, you need to use block formatting. Introduce the quotation with a signal phrase and colon. Forgo quotation marks (except to note quotations within the quotation) and indent the quoted material 1 half-inch from the left margin. Still include a superscript number that corresponds to a footnote at the bottom of the page. Block quotations are singled spaced in Chicago, but still leave a blank line before and after it. For example:

...(Let's pretend this block quotation comes in the middle of a paragraph. Before starting the quotation, provide a contextualizing sentence like the next one.) Later in the article, Turner and Pérez-Quiñones describe some of the pitfalls of electronic notetaking:

The results showing that most students in our survey do not modify their notes (or even review them) frequently imply that the benefit of easy modification, which comes with a digital medium, may not be that important. Similarly, since there was only a lukewarm response to the sharing of notes between students, that may also not be of much use.5

More study will need to be done to determine if these cons outweigh the pros of taking notes on a computer.... (And then you would keep going with more sentences that elaborate on your quotation and continue your paragraph. Note that you do not indent the beginning of this part because it is not a new paragraph.)


Scott A. Turner and Manuel A. Pérez-Quiñones, "Requirements for Electronic Note Taking Systems: A Field Study of Note Taking in University Classrooms. Education and Information Technologies 14, no. 3 (2009): 266, https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=ip,sso&db=l....

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Formatting Bibliographies

In addition to footnotes, Chicago also requires a Bibliography. This is an alphabetized list of every source quoted and paraphrased in your paper.

Begin your Bibliography on a new page with the centred title “Bibliography.” Leave two blank lines between this title and the first entry.

Start each Bibliography entry in Chicago at the left margin, leaving a blank line between each one. For each entry of 2 or more lines, keep them single spaced and use a hanging indent of one half inch.

When including titles in your Bibliography entries, use “Title-Style Capitalization.” This means that you should capitalize the first letter of all titles, the first letter of all subtitles, and any other major words in those titles (e.g., “Mission” and “Physical” but not “for” or “a”).

When citing online sources, provide a DOI number whenever possible. If there is no DOI number available, provide a Permalink or Stable URL.

Bibliography

Shepherd, Victor. "The 'Charge' We Have to 'Keep': Enhancing Gospel Integrity in Christian Higher Education." In Christian Higher Education in Canada: Challenges and Opportunities, edited by Stanley E. Porter and Bruce G. Fawcett, 283-303. Eugene: Pickwick Publications, 2020.

Citation Examples

Each of the sections below provide examples of footnotes and Bibliography entries for common types of sources used at Tyndale. Whenever possible, we provide footnote examples for full and both kinds of shortened citations. For more information on these and other types of sources, please visit the Chicago Manual of Style, 17th edition.

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Authors, Editors, and Translators

Two-Three Authors

Include both/all three authors’ names in footnotes and Bibliography entries.

Footnote

(Template) # Firstname Lastname and Anothername Lastname, Title of the Work (Publishing City: Publishing Company, Year), pg##.

1 James M. Robinson and Helmut Koester, Trajectories through Early Christianity (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1971), 225.

2 Robinson and Koester, Trajectories through Early Christianity, 237.

3 Robinson and Koester, 252.

Bibliography

(Template) Lastname, Firstname and Anothername Lastname. Title of the Work. Publishing City: Publishing Company, Year.

Robinson, James M. and Helmut Koester. Trajectories through Early Christianity. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1971.


Four or More Authors

For footnotes, give the first author’s name followed by the acronym “et al.”

Footnote

(Template) # Firstname Lastname et al. Title of the Book (Publishing City: Publishing Company, Year), pg##.

4 Eugene Toy et al., Case Files: Pediatrics, 3rd ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2009), 39.

5 Toy et al., Case Studies, 32.

6 Toy et al., 36.

Bibliography

For 4-10 authors, include all author names in the Bibliography entry. For 11 or more authors, include the first seven authors followed by et al.

(Template) Lastname, Firstname, Anothername Lastname, Thirdname Lastname, and Onemore Lastname. Title of the Book. Publishing City: Publishing Company, Year. 

Toy, Eugene, Robert Yetman, Rebecca Girardet, Mark Hormann, Sheela Lahoti, Margaret McNeese, and Mark Jason Sanders. Case Files: Pediatrics. 3rd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2009.


Editors

If you need to cite a book where you need to cite an editor instead of an author, add “ed./eds.” after the name(s) at the beginning of the full footnote and Bibliography entry.

Footnote

(Template) # Firstname Lastname, ed., Title of the Book (Publishing City: Publishing Company, Year), pg##.

7 Helen Christiansen and Sharon Ramadevi, eds., Reeducating the Educator: Global Perspectives on Community Building (Albany: State University of New York Press, 2002), 14.

8 Christiansen and Ramadevi, Reeducating the Educator, 16.

9 Christiansen and Ramadevi, 21.

Bibliography

(Template) Lastname, Firstname, ed. Title of the Book. Publishing City: Publishing Company, Year.

Christiansen, Helen and Sharon Ramadevi, eds. Reeducating the Educator: Global Perspectives on Community Building. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2002.


Translators

If you need to cite a book where there is a translator, include their name(s) as well as “trans.” in the footnote and “Translated by” in the Bibliography entry. Do not include the translator’s name in shortened footnotes.

Footnote

(Template) # Author Name, Title of the Book, trans. Translator’s Name (Publishing City: Publishing Company, Year), pg.##.

10 Dietrich Bonhoeffer, Christ the Center, trans. Edwin Robertson (San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1978), 43.

11 Bonhoeffer, Christ the Center, 49.

12 Bonhoeffer, 58.

Bibliography

(Template) Lastname, Firstname. Title of the Book. Translated by Translator’s Name (Publishing City: Publishing Company, Year.

Bonhoeffer, Dietrich. Christ the Center. Translated by Edwin Robertson. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1978.

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Books (eBooks, Chapters in a Collection)

Print Book

Footnote

(Template) # Firstname Lastname, Title of the Work (Publishing City: Publishing Company, Year), pg##.

1 James A. Beverly, Religions A to Z: A Guide to the 100 Most Influential Religious Movements (Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 2005), 187.

2 Beverly, Religions A to Z, 191.

3 Beverly, 202.

Bibliography

(Template) Lastname, Firstname. Title of the Work. Publishing City: Publishing Company, Year.

Beverly, James A. Religions A to Z: A Guide to the 100 Most Influential Religious Movements. Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 2005.


eBook

When an ebook has no page numbers/non-stable pagination, use the smallest identifiable locator instead (e.g., paragraph or chapter number, section name, etc.) in the footnotes. Include the DOI number, URL, or ebook edition (e.g., Kindle edition, etc.) as applicable.

Footnote

(Template) # Firstname Lastname, Title of the Work (Publishing City: Publishing Company, Year), pg##, DOI/URL/ebook edition. 

4 Henning Graf Reventlow, From the Old Testament to Origen. Vol. 1 of History of Biblical Interpretation, trans. Leo G. Perdue (Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, 2009), chap. 13, Nook edition.

5 Reventlow, From the Old Testament, chap. 13.

6 Reventlow, chap, 13.

Bibliography

(Template) Lastname, Firstname. Title of the Work. Publishing City: Publishing Company, Year. DOI/URL/ebook edition.

Reventlow, Henning Graf. From the Old Testament to Origen. Volume 1 of History of Biblical Interpretation. Translated by Leo G. Perdue. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, 2009. Nook edition.


Chapter/Essay in an Anthology

This category is used when you are citing one or more chapters or essays from a book/anthology where each chapter or essay has a different author. The chapter titles go in quotation marks, while the larger anthology goes in italics, followed by details about the anthology's editor(s). For the shortened footnotes, only include the chapter author's last name and (if applicable) a shortened version of the article title.

Footnote

(Template) # Firstname Lastname, “Title of the Chapter,” in Title of the Anthology, ed. Editor’s Name (Publishing City: Publishing Company, Year), pg##.

7 Richard B. Davis, “Evil and Agent-Causal Theism,” in Explaining Evil: Four Views, ed. W. Paul Franks (London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2019), 13.

8 Davis, “Evil and Agent Causal Theism,” 17.

Davis, 21.

Bibliography

(Template) Lastname, Firstname. “Title of the Chapter.” In Title of the Book, edited by Editor’s Name, pg. range. Publishing City: Publishing Company, Year.

Davis, Richard B. “Evil and Agent-Causal Theism.” In Explaining Evil: Four Views, edited by W. Paul Franks, 11-28. London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2019.

If you reference two or more chapters/essays from the same collection, you must include a separate Bibliography entry for both chapters/essays.

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Class Materials (lectures, PowerPoints, etc.)

Lecture

Footnote

In your footnote, in lieu of page numbers, provide some sort of indicator (lecture note page number, slide number, etc.) to let your reader know where you got the information from.

(Template) # Firstname Lastname, “Title of the Lecture” (lecture, School or Organization Giving the Lecture, City, Month Day Year).

1 Bill Webb, “Validation of Semantic Fields” (lecture, Tyndale University, Toronto, October 1, 2019).

2 Webb, “Validation of Semantic Fields.”

Bibliography

(Template) Lastname, Firstname. “Title of the Lecture.” Lecture presented at/by School or Organization Giving the Lecture, City, Month Day, Year

Webb, Bill. “Validation of Semantic Fields.” Lecture presented at Tyndale University, Toronto, October 1, 2019.


PowerPoint/Lecture Notes

Footnote

(Template) # Firstname Lastname, “Title of the Lecture” (PowerPoint presentation, School or Organization Giving the Lecture, City, Month Day Year), slide or pg.##.

3 Eric K. C. Wong, “Delirium in Dementia: A Learning Module for Clinicians” (PowerPoint presentation, Senior Friendly Care, Toronto, January 2020), slide 4.

4 Wong, “Delirium in Dementia,” slide 6.

5 Wong, slide 12.

Bibliography

(Template) Lastname, Firstname. “Title of the Lecture.” Lecture presented at/by School or Organization Giving the Lecture, City, Month Day, Year.

Wong, Eric K. C. “Delirium in Dementia: A Learning Module for Clinicians.” Lecture presented by Senior Friendly Care, Toronto, January 2020.

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Commentaries (Multi-volume, in a Series, on STEPBible)

Multi-Volume Commentaries

This refers to any commentary (or other multi-volume work) that includes at least two volumes. Note that in both the footnotes and the Bibliography entry, the titles for both the individual volume and the larger multi-volume work are italicized. For shortened footnotes, you should include the volume number and a colon before providing the page number. 

(Please note that the templates below include the basic information that should be included when citing a multi-volume work. The Karl Barth example includes extra features (like “part #” and translator) applicable to that work only.)

Footnote

(Template) # Firstname Lastname, Title of the Individual Book/Volume, vol. #, Title of the Larger Multi-Volume Work, ed. Editor’s Name(s) (Publishing City: Publishing Company, Year), pg.##.

1 Karl Barth, The Doctrine of the Word of God, vol. 1, part 2, Church Dogmatics, trans. G. T. Thomson and Harold Knight, ed. G. W. Bromiley and Thomas F. Torrance (London: T&T Clark, 2004), 157.

2 Barth, Doctrine of the Word, 1.2:157.

3 Barth, 1.2:157.

Bibliography

(Template) Lastname, Firstname. Title of the Individual Book/Volume. Vol. #. Title of the Larger Multi-Volume Work. Edited by Editor’s Name(s). Publishing City: Publishing Company, 2004.

Barth, Karl. The Doctrine of the Word of God. Vol. 1, part 2 of Church Dogmatis. Translated by G. T. Thomson and Harold Knight. Edited by G. W. Bromiley and Thomas F Torrance, London: T&T Clarke, 2004.


Commentary in a Series (Non-Volumed)

This refers to commentaries that do not have different volumes BUT are included in a larger series of commentaries published by the same group. Note that the series title is not italicized. 

Footnote

(Template) # Firstname Lastname, Title of the Book, Title of the Commentary Series (Publishing City: Publishing Company, Year), pg.##.

4 Peter Enns, Exodus, The NIV Application Commentary Series (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2000), 126.

5 Enns, Exodus, 128.

6 Enns, 135.

Bibliography

(Template) Firstname, Lastname. Title of the Book. Title of the Commentary Series. Publishing City: Publishing Company, Year.

Enns, Peter. Exodus. The NIV Application Commentary Series. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2000.


Commentary on STEPBible

When citing a commentary found on STEPBible, cite it like a regular commentary (including title of book and series as applicable) but also include information for the website title and the URL.

Footnote

(Template) # Firstname Lastname, Title of the Book, Title of the Commentary Series, Title of the Website (Publishing City: Publishing Company, Year), URL.

7 Sulu Kelley and Bill Brown, 1 Samuel, John Wesley’s Notes on the Bible, STEPBible (Cambridge: Tyndale House, 2020), https://www.stepbible.org/?q=version=Wesley|reference=1Sa.1.

8 Kelley and Brown, 1 Samuel, https://www.stepbible.org/?q=version=Wesley|reference=1Sa.1.

9 Kelley and Brown, https://www.stepbible.org/?q=version=Wesley|reference=1Sa.1.

Bibliography

(Template) Lastname, Firstname. Title of the Book. Title of the Commentary Series. Title of the Website. Publishing City: Publishing Company, Year. URL.

Kelley, Sullu and Bill Brown. 1 Samuel. John Wesley’s Notes on the Bible. STEPBible. 2020. https://www.stepbible.org/?q=version=Wesley|reference=1Sa.1.

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Periodicals (Journals, Newspapers, etc.)

Peer-Reviewed Journal

The examples referenced below assumes you are looking at an electronic journal article. Whenever possible, include a DOI (digital object identifier) number in place of a Permalink or Stable URL. If you are citing a print version of a journal article, everything is the same except no DOI number or URL is included.

Footnote

(Template) # Firstname Lastname, “Title of the Article,” Title of the Journal [volume] #, [issue] no. # (Year): pg.##, DOI or URL if applicable.

1 James E. Pedlar, “Universal Atonement or Ongoing Incarnation?: Comparing the Missional Theologies of William Booth and Isaac Hecker,” Wesleyan Theological Journal 50, no. 1 (Spr 2015): 141, https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=ip,sso&db=l....

2 Pedlar, “Comparing the Missional Theologies,” 144.

3 Pedlar, 146.

Bibliography

(Template) Lastname, Firstname. “Title of the Article.” Title of the Journal [volume] #, [issue] no. # (Year): pg. range. DOI or URL if applicable.

Pedlar, James E. “Universal Atonement or Ongoing Incarnation?: Comparing the Missional Theologies of William Booth and Isaac Hecker.” Wesleyan Theological Journal 50, no. 1 (Spr 2015): 134–52. https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=ip,sso&db=l....


Magazine Article

Footnote

(Template) # Firstname Lastname, “Title of the Article,” Title of the Magazine, Year/Date, pg.## OR URL.

4 Tiare Tuuhia, “How One Tiny Island is Rallying to Save a Critically Endangered Parrot,” National Geographic, July 5, 2022, https://www.nationalgeographic.com/animals/article/how-one-tiny-island-i....

5 Tuuhia, “How One Tiny Island,” https://www.nationalgeographic.com/animals/article/how-one-tiny-island-i....

6 Tuuhia, https://www.nationalgeographic.com/animals/article/how-one-tiny-island-i....

Bibliography

(Template) Lastname, Firstname. “Title of the Article.” Title of the Magazine, Date/Year, URL.

Tuuhia, Tiare. “How One Tiny Island is Rallying to Save a Critically Endangered Parrot.” National Geographic, July 5, 2022, https://www.nationalgeographic.com/animals/article/how-one-tiny-island-i....


Newspaper Article

Footnote

(Template) # Firstname Lastname, “Title of the Article,” Title of the Newspaper, Date, URL.

7 Megan Margulies, “Kids Need Superheroes Now More than Ever,” The New York Times, September 21, 2020, https://www.nytimes.com/2020/09/21/parenting/kids-superheroes.html.

8 Margulies, “Kids Need Superheroes Now,” https://www.nytimes.com/2020/09/21/parenting/kids-superheroes.html.

9 Margulies, https://www.nytimes.com/2020/09/21/parenting/kids-superheroes.html.

Bibliography

(Template) Lastname, Firstname. “Title of the Article.” Title of the Newspaper, Date, URL.

Margulies, Megan. “Kids Need Superheroes Now More than Ever.” The New York Times, September 21, 2020, https://www.nytimes.com/2020/09/21/parenting/kids-superheroes.html.

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Reference Works (Dictionaries, Encyclopaedias, STEPBible Lexicon, etc.)

Common Print Reference Works

When citing a print reference work that is regularly updated (e.g., popular dictionaries or encyclopaedias), you do not need to include publication information in the note, nor must the entry appear in the Bibliography. Simply include the reference work’s name, edition and year of publication, and what term is being looked up with the abbreviation “s.v.” (sub verba, or “under the word”).

Footnote

(Template) # Reference Work Name, #th ed., s.v. “Term you are looking up.”

1 Enyclopaedia Brittannica, 14th ed., s.v. “Cold War.”

2 Enyclopaedia Brittannica, s.v. “Cold War.”


Common Online Reference Works

When citing a common online reference work (e.g., popular dictionaries or encyclopaedias available online), include the reference work’s name, the term being researched, the last date of modification (if available) OR the date you looked up the term, and the URL. Do not include an entry in your Bibliography.

Footnote

(Template) # Online Reference Work Name, s.v. “Term you are looking up," last modified/accessed Month Day, Year, URL.

3 Oxford English Dictionary Online, s.v. “anarchy,” accessed July 4, 2022, https://www.oed.com/view/Entry/7118?redirectedFrom=anarchy&.

4 Oxford English Dictionary Online, s.v. “anarchy.”


Theological Dictionaries and other Uncommon Reference Works

For less common reference works, such as those found in discipline-specific reference works where many terms have long, authored definitions, cite them like you would a chapter in an anthology.

Footnote

(Template) # Firstname Lastname, “Title of the Chapter,” in Title of the Anthology, ed. Editor’s Name (Publishing City: Publishing Company, Year), pg##.

5 Benjamin E. Reynolds, “Logos,” in Dictionary of Jesus and the Gospels, edited by Nicholas Perrin, Jeannine Brown, and Joel Green (Downers Grove, IL: IVP Academic, 2013), 523.

6 Reynolds, “Logos,” 524.

7 Reynolds, 525.

Bibliography

(Template) Lastname, Firstname. “Title of the Chapter.” In Title of the Book, edited by Editor’s Name, pg. range. Publishing City: Publishing Company, Year.

Reynolds, Benjamin E. “Logos.” In Dictionary of Jesus and the Gospels, edited by Nicholas Perrin, Jeannine Brown, and Joel Green, 523-526. Downers Grove, IL: IVP Academic, 2013.


Lexicon on STEPBible

When citing a lexicon found on STEPBible, cite it like an online reference work without an author. Make sure you include any vowel or accent markers for the word you are looking up. Do not include an entry in your Bibliography. 

Footnote

(Template) # Title of the Lexicon, Title of the Website, s.v. “Term being looked up,” accessed Month Day, Year, URL.

8 The Liddell-Scott-Jones Greek-English Lexicon, STEPBible, s.v. “Agapaō,” accessed April 8, 2021, https://www.stepbible.org/?q=version=ESV|strong=G0025&options=VNHUG.

9 The Liddell-Scott-Jones Greek-English Lexicon, s.v. “Agapaō.”

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Scripture

The Bible

Citation information for the Bible and other sacred works are NOT placed in footnotes. Instead, use in-text parenthetical citations with abbreviations for the books of the Bible as applicable (see sections 10.44-48 of the CMS for a list of acceptable abbreviations). For example:

Paul explains that “in all things God works for the good of those who love him” (Rom. 8:28).

If you include the book, chapter, and verse as part of your sentence, provide the book name in full. You do not need to include the biblical reference again in brackets. For example:

Paul says in Romans 8:28, “And we know that in all things God works for the good of those who love him.”

NOTE: The first time you reference a translation, you must provide the full translation name in regular font as part of your parenthetical citation. For example:

Paul says in Romans 8:28, “And we know that in all things God works for the good of those who love him” (New International Version).

God instructed Moses to “chisel out two stone tablets like the first ones” (Exod. 34:1 New International Version).

If you only use one translation in your assignment, subsequent Scripture references do not need to list translation again. However, if you use multiple translations, you must provide the full name the first time each translation is referenced and abbreviations (NIV) for subsequent references.

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Theses, Dissertations, and Monographs

When referencing a thesis, dissertation, or monograph, you must include the type of document and university name in place of publication information. Sample “types of documents” include “master’s thesis,” “unpublished dissertation,” and more.

Footnote

(Template) # Firstname Lastname, “Title of the Thesis/Dissertation/Monograph” (type of document, University Name, Year), pg.##.

1 Michael Ignatieff, “A Just Measure of Pain: The Penitentiary in the Industrial Revolution, 1750-1850” (Dissertation, Harvard University, 1978), 12. 

2 Ignatieff, “Just Measure of Pain,” 16.

3 Ignatieff, 26.

Bibliography

(Template) Lastname, Firstname. “Title of the Thesis/Dissertation/Monograph.” Type of document, University Name, Year.

Ignatieff, Michael. “A Just Measure of Pain: The Penitentiary in the Industrial Revolution, 1750-1850." Dissertation, Harvard University, 1978.

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Websites

The following guide lists how to cite websites in Chicago style. Please note, however, that websites are not considered scholarly sources. Therefore, they should only be used in particular contexts (e.g., when calling attention to a church’s mission statement or statement of faith) rather than as a foundational part of your research.

A “webpage” is the specific page you got your information from (like a chapter in a book). A “website” is the larger domain where all the pages on that site are housed (like the book the chapter is in). Since there are no page numbers on websites, include the URL instead as part of your footnotes and Bibliography entries.  

Webpage with Author

If the webpage provides an author, use their name. Sometimes, an organization’s name may be used in place of an individual author (e.g., Microsoft Corporation).

Footnote

(Template) # Firstname Lastname, “Title of the Webpage,” Title of the Website, [last modified/accessed] Date, URL.

1 Avery Carr, “3 Revolutionary Women of Mathematics,” Scientific American, March 24, 2016, https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/guest-blog/3-revolutionary-women-of....

2 Carr, https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/guest-blog/3-revolutionary-women-of....

Bibliography

(Template) Lastname, Firstname. “Title of the Webpage.” Title of the Website.” [Last modified/Accessed] Date. URL.

Carr, Avery. “3 Revolutionary Women of Mathematics.” Scientific American. March 24, 2016. https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/guest-blog/3-revolutionary-women-of....


Webpage without Author

When a website does not have an author listed, start the footnote and Bibliography entry with the title of the webpage.

Footnote

(Template) # “Title of the Webpage,” Title of the Website, [last modified/accessed] Date, URL.

3 “What Does the Bible Say about Women Pastors?,” Got Questions, accessed Nov. 12, 2019. https://www.gotquestions.org/women-pastors.html.

4 “About Women Pastors?,” https://www.gotquestions.org/women-pastors.html.

Bibliography

(Template) “Title of the Webpage.” Title of the Website. Last modified/Accessed Date. URL.

“What Does the Bible Say about Women Pastors?” Got Questions. Accessed Nov. 12, 2019. https://www.gotquestions.org/women-pastors.html.

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Citing Something Someone Else Cited

Sometimes, you will find a quotation or a paraphrase in another text that perfectly fits what you want to say. Whenever possible, try to find the original source so that you can double check the accuracy and context of what the original author said. But when you can’t locate the original source, how do you cite their ideas properly?

In Chicago, you need to list both the source you have AND the original source in your footnote. Start the footnote by listing as much citation information as you have for the original source (you may need to look through the original source’s footnotes/Bibliography to find this information). Then, put a comma and “quoted in” or “paraphrased in,” and then provide the citation information for the source you have. For example:

1 Louis Zukofsky, “Sincerity and Objectification,” Poetry 37 (February 1931): 269, quoted in Bonnie Costello, Marianne Moore: Imaginary Possessions (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1981), 78.

You do NOT need to cite the original source in your bibliography. Only include a Bibliography entry for the source you have. So for the footnote above, the Bibliography entry would be:

Costello, Bonnie. Marianne Moore: Imaginary Possessions. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1981.

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