Turabian is an offshoot of the Chicago Manual of Style that is typically reserved for graduate level academic work. It is primarily used at Tyndale in the Doctor of Ministry program, though it is occasionally used in other Seminary courses. Details about Turabian can be found in A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, 9th edition.
Turabian offers two ways to cite information: “Notes-Bibliography” and “Author-Date.” The following guide lists information for the Author-Date style, the version of Turabian used by the Doctor of Ministry program. For information on the “Notes-Bibliography” version, please consult our resource for Chicago.
Turabian (Author-Date) requires a title page for all assignments. You should include the name of your school (Tyndale University), your paper’s title and subtitle, the phrase “An assignment in partial fulfilment of [Course Name]”, “Tyndale Seminary”, the name of your professor, your name, city, and due date. View a sample title page!
Include page numbers centred in the footer of all pages. Do NOT number title pages, approval pages, or copyright pages. Front matter (if applicable – mainly used for final portfolios) uses lowercase Roman numerals, while the main body of your content uses Arabic numbers, with page 1 being the first page of your introduction.
Turabian (Author-Date) recommends headings in papers of six pages or longer. Before and after each heading, leave two blank single-spaced lines. Use the heading formatting as listed below.
CENTRED, ALL CAPITALIZED LETTERING
Level 1: Centred, Bold, Title-Style Capitalization
Level 2: Centred, Regular Font, Title-Style Capitalization
Level 3: Flush Left, Bold, Title-Style Capitalization
Level 4: Flush Left, Regular Font, Title-Style Capitalization
Level 5: Indented to start with paragraph. Bold, sentence-style capitalization, and end heading with a period. Do not leave additional space after the heading but go straight into your paragraph.
A Turabian paper should be written in 12 pt. font, Times New Roman, and double spaced. Do NOT include extra spacing between paragraphs; instead, indent the first line of each paragraph by one half-inch.
Citation Rules and Common Sources in Turabian
Formatting In-Text Citation
Turabian uses an “author-date” citation style. This means that whenever you include a quote or paraphrase in your assignments, you must include the author’s last name, the source’s year of publication, and the page number where you got your information from.
- Quotation Example: In many ways, true “patience hangs on our capacity to believe that God is up to something good for us in all our delays and detours” (Piper 1992, 34).
- Paraphrase Example: In the Colossians 1 hymn, we see that character, markers, and treasures traditionally applied to wisdom in the Old Testament are now being applied to Christ (Bevere 2003, 127).
Frequently in your assignments, you may signal a quotation or paraphrasing using a signal phrase, also known as “narrative citations” (e.g., ”Author writes…” or “As Author claims,”). In that case, include the year of publication and page number in brackets immediately following the author’s name.
- Quotation Example: Piper (1992, 34) claims, “The strength of patience hangs on our capacity to believe that God is up to something good for us in all our delays and detours.”
- Paraphrase Example: In the Colossians 1 hymn, Bevere (2003, 127) points out that the character, markers, and treasures applied to wisdom in the Old Testament were now being applied to Christ.
For a quotation of 5 or more lines of prose in your paper, use block formatting. Introduce the quotation with a signal phrase and colon. Forgo quotation marks (except to note quotations within the quotation) and indent the quoted material 1 inch from the left margin. Block quotes are still double spaced, and page numbers go outside of the sentence.
...(Let's pretend this block quotation comes in the middle of a paragraph. Before starting the quotation, provide a contextualizing sentence like the next one.) Pentecostals recognize that there is a “paradox” in how God is depicted in Scripture, but it does not bother them:
The absolute, immutable, changeless, timeless, impassible God is also the personal God who answers prayer and seemingly changes his mind. For Pentecostal thinking, the paradox contained in biblical descriptions of God does not pose any problems because they experience God in dynamic, personal terms as the unknowable God who in his greatness, might and majesty as Master of the universe falls outside the frame of reference of human beings, who are the works of his hands. (Nel 2017, 5)
Of course, the fact that we can never fully know God does not mean we should hold back from seeking to know Him better. (And then you would keep going with more sentences that elaborate on your quotation and continue your paragraph. Note that you do not indent the beginning of this part because it is not a new paragraph.)
Formatting Reference List
In addition to in-text citations, Turabian also requires a Reference List. This is an alphabetized list of every source quoted and paraphrased in your assignment. In the event that you use two sources by the same author, list those sources in chronological order with the oldest entry first.
List your sources on a new page at the end of your paper with the bolded title Reference List. Double-space the entire page, start entries at the left margin, and use a hanging indent of half an inch for entries that spill onto two or more lines.
When including titles in your Reference List, use “Title-Style Capitalization.” This means that you should capitalize the first letter of all titles, the first letter of all subtitles, and any other major words in those titles (e.g., “Mission” and “Physical” but not “for” or “a”). Titles of shorter works (journal articles, chapters, etc.) should be in quotation marks. Titles of most other works (journals, databases, anthologies, etc.) should be in italics.
When citing online sources, provide a DOI number whenever possible. If there is no DOI number available, provide a Permalink or Stable URL.
NOTE: Although the Turabian manual permits the inclusion of sources into your Reference List that inspired your thoughts but were not actually cited, most Tyndale professors prefer that these sources NOT be included in your Reference List.
Bevere, Allan R. (2003). Sharing in the Inheritance: Identity and the Moral Life in Colossians. London: Sheffield Academic Press, https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=ip,sso&db=nlebk&AN=378257&site=ehost-live&scope=site&custid=s9775827&ebv=EB&ppid=pp_Cover.